Sediment accretion (burial) and nutrient enrichment occur concurrently in lacustrine wetlands, but the role of these two aspects of sedimentation on macrophyte performance has rarely been examined. Here, we investigated the concurrent effects of sediment accretion and nutrient enrichment on the growth and propagation of Phalaris arundinacea L. using a factorial sediment burial by nutrient addition experimental design. Regardless of burial depth, nutrient addition increased biomass accumulation, shoot mass ratio, the number of rhizomes, and the length of ramets and rhizomes. While burial had little effect on plant growth and propagation, it had an interactive effect with nutrient addition on belowground growth and ramet production. These results indicate that P. arundinacea is tolerant to burial, which allows it to grow in habitats with high sedimentation rates. However, the enhanced growth and propagation of P. arundinacea following sedimentation were primarily related to nutrient enrichment. This suggests that nutrient enrichment of sediments, which occurs in many lacustrine wetlands, increases the risk of invasion by P. arundinacea.